Childhood/adult-onset lysosomal acid lipase deficiency: A serious metabolic and vascular phenotype beyond liver disease-four new pediatric cases.
Journal of clinical lipidology
Poinsot P, Collardeau Frachon S, Restier L, Sérusclat A, Di Filippo M, Charrière S, Moulin P, Lachaux A, Peretti N
2017 J Clin Lipidol Volume 11 Issue 1
The childhood/adult-onset lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LALD; late-onset LALD) is a rare genetic disease. Children present severe fatty liver disease with early cirrhosis. Before enzyme replacement therapy, statins were the standard treatment to improve the severe dyslipidemia. However, late-onset LALD should be considered as a systemic metabolic disease: chronic hyper-low-density lipoprotein and hypo-high-density lipoprotein cholesterolemia induces early atherosclerosis in addition to the liver morbidity.
To assess 4 new pediatric cases of late-onset LALD with an evaluation of hepatic, metabolic, and vascular evolution under statin.
Four patients were retrospectively described. Anthropometric data (weight, height, and body mass index) and laboratory data (LIPA mutations, acid lipase residual activity, liver and lipid profile, and homeostatic model assessment index) were collected. Liver histology was assessed by the noninvasive tests FibroScan and FibroTest and confirmed by liver biopsy. Vascular impact was followed up by carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) assessment.
The 4 cases of late-onset LALD came from 2 families, each with a boy (aged 8.6 and 11 years at diagnosis) and a girl (aged 10.6 and 13 years at diagnosis). Treatment with statins was performed for 8 and 5 years, respectively, from diagnosis. Statins decreased the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol mean value of 40%. All children showed significant liver fibrosis (F3 [n = 3]; F2 [n = 1]). cIMT showed the following for all children: abnormal measures without improvement and atherosclerotic plaques. One child developed a deleterious metabolic phenotype with obesity and insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment = 3.08) associated with higher mean hepatic transaminases (149 vs 98, 88, and 61 IU/L) and increased mean cIMT values (raising from 0.47 to 0.5 mm vs 0.43 and 0.43 mm).
Late-onset LALD is a rare metabolic disease with a larger impact than liver disease. Our work shows the importance of having a global metabolic view and to evaluate the cardiovascular impact of the new enzymatic treatment.